Asteroid impact damage from the Planet X system – Part 2
In this article, we’ll finalize a look at a variety of expert opinions on the catastrophic earth damage from the flyby of a Near Earth Object such as the Planet X system.
NASA’s asteroid detection programs are drastically underfunded.
Space.com – 2010
“Earth Not Properly Protected from Asteroids,” Space.com, 22 January. [Online] Earth Not Protected from Asteroids
The United States must do more to safeguard Earth against destruction by an asteroid than merely prepping nuclear missiles, a new report has found.
The 134-page report, released Friday by the National Academy of Sciences, states that the $4 million spent by the United States to identify all potentially dangerous asteroids near Earth is not enough to do the job mandated by Congress in 2005. NASA is in dire need of more funding to meet the challenge and less than $1 million is currently set aside to research ways to counter space rocks that do endanger Earth — measures like developing the spacecraft and technology to deflect incoming asteroids, the report states.
An early draft of the report, entitled “Defending the Earth: Near-Earth Object Surveys and Hazard-Mitigation Strategies,” was released in August 2009. The final report, written by a committee of expert scientists, says NASA is ill-equipped to catalog 90% of the nearby asteroids that are 460 feet (140 meters) across or larger as directed by Congress.
The United States should also be planning more methods of defending Earth against an asteroid threat in the near-term. Nuclear weapons should be a last resort? But they are also only useful if the world has years of advance notice of a large, incoming space rock, the report states.
Likewise, decades of notice are required to build and launch spacecraft to push an asteroid clear of Earth or smash it with a forceful, but non-nuclear, projectile, the committee wrote in the report. Organized evacuations and other civil defense efforts would only be useful in the event of smaller objects with limited advance notice, it added.
NASA’s asteroid and near-Earth object experts have said that the agency has found about 85% of the largest nearby asteroids, ones that are a half-mile (1 km) wide or larger. But only 15% of the 460-foot-wide asteroids near Earth have been discovered and tracked to date, and just 5% of nearby space rocks about 164 feet (50 meters) across have been found.
Lindley Johnson, NASA’s manager of the Near-Earth Objects program, has said that NASA needs up to $1 billion in additional funding over the next 15 years in order to meet its goal of finding all nearby asteroids that could threaten Earth.
But Congress has not set aside funding to support near-Earth object surveys, according to the report.
Asteroid Strikes – Impact – Mass Extinctions
Ground shock from deep impact causes cascading earthquakes producing global mass extinction events.
Marusek – Nuclear Physicist and Engineer @ Impact – 2007
James, “Comet and Asteroid Threat Impact Analysis,” Paper presented at the 2007 AIAA Planetary Defense Conference, 5-9 March 2007 (Washington, D.C.). [Online] Comet and Asteroid Impact Threat Analysis
The shockwave that passes through Earth is referred to as Ground Shock. During the impact, the kinetic energy of the asteroid/comet is transmitted directly into the ground, producing compression and shear motions which propagate radially outward and vertically inward from the point-of-impact. Ground shock is similar to an earthquake. Ground shock propagates very quickly. At large distance from the impact site, ground shock will be the first shockwave to arrive. The speed of the ground shock is estimated using analogous earthquake formulas. Earthquakes are delineated into two categories: Primary and Secondary.
Primary earthquakes travel at 13,500 mph to 29,000 mph (6 to 13 km/s). These earthquakes penetrate through the crust of the earth and travel through the molten mantel. A large ocean impact will produce a ground shock similar to a primary earthquake due to the fact that Earth’s crust is very thin under the ocean. I expect the primary ground shock from a large ocean impact to be the main trigger in producing the following secondary effects: earthquakes, volcanoes, lava flows and underwater landslides.
Secondary earthquakes move at a speed of 8,000 mph to 12,000 mph (3.5 to 5.5 km/s). These earthquakes will travel horizontally across Earth’s crust. A large land impact will produce a ground shock similar to a secondary earthquake. Experience from nuclear weapons testing shows this secondary ground shock is an extremely damaging shockwave near the impact site. The ground shock at the equivalent 75-psi blast overpressure is sufficient to snap an individual’s legs in two if they are standing on a concrete floor within a blast shelter. But this shockwave effect rolls off very quickly, such that at the equivalent 50-psi range, the effect is minimal.
In my assessment, ground shock is a major component of the primary threat from a deep impact. This type of very large impact produces global mass extinction events.
Asteroid Strikes – Impact – Mass Extinction – KT Extinction Proves
The Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction proves – The impact triggered mass extinction within days.
Science Daily – 03/04/10
“Asteroid Killed Off the Dinosaurs,” Science Daily, 04 March. [Online] Asteroid Killed Off The Dinosaurs
The Cretaceous-Tertiary mass extinction, which wiped out the dinosaurs and more than half of species on Earth, was caused by an asteroid colliding with Earth and not massive volcanic activity, according to a comprehensive review of all the available evidence, published in the journal Science.
A panel of 41 international experts, including UK researchers from Imperial College London, the University of Cambridge, University College London and the Open University, reviewed 20 years’-worth of research to determine the cause of the Cretaceous-Tertiary (KT) extinction, which happened around 65 million years ago. The extinction wiped out more than half of all species on the planet, including the dinosaurs, bird-like pterosaurs and large marine reptiles, clearing the way for mammals to become the dominant species on Earth.
The new review of the evidence shows that the extinction was caused by a massive asteroid slamming into Earth at Chicxulub (pronounced chick-shoo-loob) in Mexico. The asteroid, which was around 15 kilometers wide, is believed to have hit Earth with a force one billion times more powerful than the atomic bomb at Hiroshima. It would have blasted material at high velocity into the atmosphere, triggering a chain of events that caused a global winter, wiping out much of life on Earth in a matter of days.
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